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Astrophysicists reveal that black holes could be producing gold

The Universe may have more methods than we imagined to create heavy elements. Metals like gold, silver, thorium, and uranium need very extreme circumstances such as a supernova explosion or a neutron star collision to form.

However, a new article suggests that these materials might emerge in the whirling maelstrom surrounding an active newborn black hole as it consumes dust and gas from the surrounding Universe. The high neutrino emission rate in these severe conditions should assist the conversion of protons to neutrons, resulting in more than the latter, which is necessary for making heavy elements.

“In our study, we systematically investigated the conversion rates of neutrons and protons for a large number of disc configurations for the first time using elaborate computer simulations, and we discovered that the discs have numerous neutrons as long as the conditions meet,” said astrophysicist Oliver Just. There weren’t a lot of components floating around in the beginning, following the Big Bang. The Universe was all hydrogen and helium until stars were created and began smashing atomic nuclei together in their centers.

Stellar nuclear fusion filled the Universe with heavier elements, ranging from carbon to iron for the most massive stars, scattered across space after the principal dies. However, iron is where core fusion fails. The heat and energy necessary to manufacture iron via fusion surpass the power generated by the process, causing the core temperature to plummet and the star to die in a magnificent kaboom – the supernova.

The heavier atoms are fused in that stunning kaboom (and the kabooms of colliding neutron stars). The explosions are so powerful that particles interacting with enough force may grab neutrons from one another. This process is called rapid neutron capture or r-process; it must proceed fast so that radioactive decay does not begin before further neutrons are added to the nucleus.

It’s uncertain if the r-process can occur in other settings, but infant black holes are a plausible contender. When neutron stars merge, and their combined mass is sufficient to push the newly created object into the category of a black hole. Another option is collapsars, which are caused by the gravitational collapse of the core of a giant star into a stellar-mass black hole.

In both circumstances, the infant black hole is considered to be encircled by a dense, hot ring of material that swirls around it and feeds into it like water down a drain. Neutrinos are abundant in these conditions, and astronomers have long suspected that r-capture nucleosynthesis is occurring as a result.

Just and his colleagues ran a slew of simulations to see if this was the case. They altered the black hole’s mass and spin, the group of the material around it, and the influence of different parameters on neutrinos. They discovered that r-process nucleosynthesis might take occur in these situations provided the circumstances are exactly perfect.

“The more massive the disc, the more often neutrons are generated from protons by electron capture and neutrinos emission, and are accessible for heavy element synthesis via the r-process.” “However, if the disk’s mass is too large, the inverse reaction becomes more active, and neutrons trap more neutrinos before they leave the disc.” These neutrons are subsequently transformed back to protons, causing the r-process to be slowed.”



NASA is going to fly Space Launch Station for 30 years

NASA has unveiled long-term plans for the Space Launch System, the massive rocket that it has been developing since around 2010. After spending billions of dollars on it, NASA plans to launch the SLS for the first time in February 2022. NASA wants to sell the SLS, fly it once a year for the Artemis Program, and pay half the cost. The space agency intends to continue doing so for at least the next 30 years.

Meanwhile, a federal judge has dismissed Blue Origin’s case against NASA and SpaceX over the Human Landing System award to Elon Musk’s business. Work on the SpaceX HLS, based on the Starship rocket currently being constructed in Boca Chica, may begin.

Blue Origin CEO Jeff Bezos was polite in defeat, remarking that it was “not the conclusion we wanted, but we accept the court’s ruling, and wish NASA and SpaceX complete success on the contract.” When the HLS second-round competition begins, Blue Origin will have another opportunity. Congress must fund that round. Now that the Blue Origin case has been resolved, NASA and SpaceX can continue the Artemis return to the moon program.

The following is an update from Ars Technica on the status of that effort: The unmanned Artemis I mission will be launched around the moon in February to test the Space Launch System and Orion. Then, in May 2024, Artemis II will go on a historical journey around the moon with a crew of three Americans and one Canadian – the first since Apollo 17 in 1972.

The next lunar landing, Artemis III, has been delayed until at least 2025. NASA cited the litigation, budget deficits, and technological issues as justifications for postponing the 2024 deadline. Meanwhile, SpaceX plans to launch the Starship into orbit as soon as the FAA overcomes environmental issues, expected to be early next year. Eventually, an uncrewed mission to the lunar surface will be sent by a lunar Starship. The mission will prepare the way for SpaceX’s Human Landing System, which would return Americans to the moon as early as 2025.

The lunar Starship will be sent into low-Earth orbit, according to the plan. The spacecraft will then spend nearly a month refueling before being sent into lunar orbit. The Orbit Launch System will then launch an Orion spacecraft into space. At least two people will transfer to the SpaceX HLS once the Orion docks with the lunar Starship. They will go to the lunar surface on a rocket ship. Americans will walk on the moon in front of billions of TV screens for the first time in nearly 50 years.

The issue is that each Orion/SLS journey to the moon can only occur once a year. Furthermore, NASA intends to reduce the cost of an Artemis mission to between $1 billion and $1.5 billion each trip, which is an enormous sum.

According to Ars Technica, there is a fascinating alternative: the SpaceX Starship launches to low-Earth orbit and is fuelled as previously. In the alternative scenario, the Starship transports a crew of astronauts straight from LEO to the moon, eliminating the Orion/SLS system requirement. The cost would be orders of magnitude lower than the present NASA proposal, and it could occur multiple times each year.



Researchers say this Asteroid is a piece of Moon

According to a new analysis, the asteroid known as Kamooalewa is the planet’s most stable quasi-satellite in terms of orbit, but while it is unlikely to qualify as a moon, it may, in reality, be a piece of our own. The asteroid, also known as 469219, was discovered in 2016 by astronomers at the University of Hawaii. This name is emerged from the Hawaiian language and is a mix of words that indicate “the,” “fragment,” “of,” and “to oscillate.”

The asteroid is 46 to 58 meters in diameter, equivalent to Italy’s Leaning Tower of Pisa or Disney World’s Cinderella Castle. As a result, while it has been designated as a Near-Earth Object (NEO) due to its proximity to the planet, it is not a Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA), which must be at least 140 meters in size.

Its orbit and connection to Earth, though, are particularly fascinating. Kamooalewa is an Apollo-class asteroid, which means that its orbit around the Sun regularly brings it near Earth. The asteroid, however, is affected by the Earth’s orbit. It revolves around the Sun more closely than Earth, yet it frequently crosses outside Earth’s orbit.

It is more impulsive with planet’s gravity as it bobs about the Earth’s orbital plane in what NASA Center for NEO Studies at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory manager Paul Chodas characterized as a game of leapfrog. This is a process going on for about a century and is likely to continue for decades to come.

As a result, it is known as Earth’s “constant companion” and is regarded as the most outstanding example of a quasi-satellite.

Every year, the asteroid’s loops around Earth move forward or backward. Still, when they move forward or backward, Earth’s gravity is vital to change and hold onto the asteroid so that it never moves further away than about 100 times the distance of the Moon, Chodas said in 2016. “The same force keeps the asteroid from getting any closer than around 38 times the distance between it and the Moon. This little asteroid is engaged in a brief dance with Earth.”

The recent study, published in the academic journal Communications Earth & Environment, began in 2016 and examined the asteroid using the Large Binocular Telescope and the Lowell Discovery Telescope to perform a thorough examination, and discovered that the asteroid is reddened, referring to its specific pattern of reflected light, also known as a spectrum. It is unique, but the level of reddening is significantly more than that found in other asteroids in the inner solar system.

The researchers discovered it to be the closest match after analyzing lunar samples from the Apollo 14 mission. This suggests that Kamooalewa must have broken away from the lunar surface at some time.

But there’s another problem: although it’s conceivable, it’s also utterly unprecedented. “I searched through every near-Earth asteroid spectrum we had access to, and nothing matched,” said primary research author Ben Sharkey, a doctoral student at the University of Arizona, in a release, referring to the fact that there are no other known NEOs considered to have split from the Moon.

The astronomers had to take another observation of the asteroid after being uncertain for three years. COVID-19, on the other hand, shut down the telescopes required to observe it in April 2020, denying them another look. Kamooalewa is incredibly faint, 4 million times fainter than the brightest visible star in the sky. It would not be easy to see without a telescope. They finally saw Kamooalewa in the spring of 2021, and the puzzle began to fall into place.



NASA is going to fix software issues of Hubble Space Telescope

NASA is thinking about making some software changes to the Hubble Space Equipment to reactivate the decommissioned telescope. Depending on how weekend troubleshooting goes, engineers may switch on one observatory camera next week.

The recovery team is currently looking at the hardware that controls the instruments, which is included in the Science Instrument Data Handling Unit, according to an update issued by the agency on Friday (November 5). Since its equipment went into a protected, safe mode in late October, the famous space telescope could not conduct science observations.

According to NASA, the crew is explicitly investigating the circuitry of the Control Unit, which creates messages and provides them to the instruments. The agency is updating the instrument flying software to look for data synchronization messages without entering safe mode. According to the agency, the loss of these messages appears to be the cause of the malfunction.

The telescope, which has been in orbit since 1990 and was last serviced by astronauts in 2009, entered safe mode on October 25 due to a fault and is no longer capable of doing observations. In a Tuesday (November 2) report, the agency stated that all instruments are safe as the inquiry continues.

The telescope will not be repaired in person again since the space shuttles that used to fly to the telescope for maintenance were retired in 2011 after 30 years of service. As a result, researchers are working from afar to assist Hubble. NASA said in the statement that workarounds would first be tested using ground simulators to verify they functioned as intended.

The Hubble team will examine control unit design schematics, data from lost communications, and the spectrum of potential instrument software improvements that might address the problem before making any changes to the software.

Hubble team members attempt to collect data from the observatory’s cameras and equipment along with the rescue effort. During the October 30 weekend, the team activated parts of the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer instruments, allowing the team to establish how frequently this data synchronization problem happens, according to NASA. According to the update, NICMOS was recovered on Monday (November 1), and no more data synchronization messages have been lost since then.

Next, Hubble engineers attempt to restore Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys instrument to resume scientific collection at the start of next week. After analyzing the evidence, the agency will make a final judgment on Sunday (November 7). According to NASA, ACS was chosen as the ideal instrument to use initially since it is the least likely to cause stress on the observatory.

The Hubble Space Telescope’s problems have been a reoccurring issue recently. Yet, the telescope cannot be blamed for the defects it has been suffering from lately because it’s been in space for 31 years. Earlier in June 2021, the telescope’s payload computer malfunctioned, sending it into safe mode for nearly a month. However, it is worth noting that the telescope’s components are from a bygone era, having been created in the 1980s.

According to NASA, if a lost communication is discovered before then, activating ACS will be reconsidered. The plan to return instruments to full function is still in the works. According to the agency, the crew continues with caution to safeguard the safety of the equipment and minimize extra strains on the hardware.


NASA is set to launch another Crew Dragon spacecraft

NASA and SpaceX had wanted to launch the next group of astronauts to the International Space Station in late October. Still, the Crew-3 mission has been delayed many times owing to weather and health concerns. But, according to mission management, Crew-3 is now ready to launch aboard a Falcon 9 rocket on Wednesday at 9:03 p.m.

NASA astronauts Raja Chari, Tom Marshburn, Kayla Barron, and European astronaut Matthias Maurer will launch onboard Crew Dragon Endurance for this mission. The astronauts will spend nearly six months in orbit after docking with the space station on Thursday, undertaking a mix of scientific and maintenance activities.

The first launch attempt on Halloween was canceled due to inclement weather. The launch location was good, but flight controllers were concerned about high waves and strong winds offshore as an extratropical cyclone raged over the northern Atlantic Ocean. If there had been an emergency during the Falcon 9 rocket launch, the Crew Dragon spacecraft would have had to escape into unacceptably terrible surface conditions.

During a Tuesday night news conference, SpaceX’s William Gerstenmaier revealed that the Just Read the Instructions drone ship, positioned offshore to retrieve the Falcon 9 first stage after launch, had been pounded by 20- to 25-foot seas over the last week.

These offshore storms have weakened slightly, and analysts now predict a 70% likelihood of favorable weather for a liftoff Wednesday evening, with decent downrange conditions.

A small medical concern with one of the four astronauts on the Crew-3 mission, in addition to weather, NASA said, contributed to the three-day delay in the launch attempt. According to Holly Ridings, chief flight director at Johnson Space Center, the problem was resolved on Tuesday evening.

Ridings explained that we don’t usually talk about particular crew members. We have a comprehensive health-stabilization plan in place. Several people are working to ensure that nothing goes into orbit.

Obviously, in a confined setting like the space station, you have to be highly cautious before leaving the Earth to ensure that nothing terrible happens to them while they are in orbit. NASA did state that the problem was unrelated to COVID-19.

Finally, NASA and SpaceX had to take a close look at a sluggish parachute deployment issue on Tuesday. One of the spacecraft’s four main parachutes deployed around 75 seconds after the other three when the Crew-2 mission landed on Monday night.

According to Gerstenmaier, this was not a parachute failure but rather the result of four parachutes being crammed into the top of the Crew Dragon capsule. This occurred during testing and is well known. Crew Dragon is qualified to land using three parachute systems, and its fall rate was minimal. NASA and SpaceX, on the other hand, were cautious in their assessment of the situation.

After Crew-2 landed on Monday night, the trailing parachute was flown back to SpaceX’s facilities at Kennedy Space Center, the same place where it was suspended from a crane for examination. This was done to see whether there was any damage that might have resulted in the sluggish deployment.

Gerstenmaier described each of these flights as a “present for us.” We’re still figuring out how to drive these things. We’re learning how to fly in space right now.



Astrophysics decadal survey is set for high-range space telescopes

A report on the future of astrophysics research recommended that NASA is going to conduct many flagship observatories, beginning with a large space telescope that would cost $11 billion but would not fly until the early 2040s.

The National Academies’ Pathways to Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 2020s study, issued November 4, the future space telescope was suggested as part of a bigger program that would later support work on X-ray space observatories.

Rather than developing those missions separately, the study proposed that NASA create a Great Observatories Mission and Technology Maturation Program to manage initial investigations of big flagship astrophysics missions as well as invest in the technology required to support them.

The survey committee anticipates that this procedure will reduce cost and risk while allowing for more frequent launches of flagship missions, even though it will need much greater upfront expenditure before a decadal proposal for execution.

According to one member of the decadal survey’s steering group, this approach is based on the recognition that many scientific aims stretch far beyond the study’s typical 10-year time span.

The first flagship mission of the new program would be a six-meter-diameter space telescope built for ultraviolet, visible, and infrared investigations. A telescope of this size would be ideal for analyzing possibly habitable exoplanets, but it may also be utilized for a variety of other astrophysical studies.

The report’s proposal is a hybrid of two NASA-funded decadal mission concepts. One, termed LUVOIR, provided a telescope with a diameter of 8 to 15 meters for ultraviolet, optical, and infrared investigations. The other, known as the Habitable Exoplanet Observatory or HabEx, envisaged a telescope between 3.2 and 4 meters across that could be paired with a second spacecraft known as a starshade to allow direct imaging of exoplanets.

HabEx may fall short of providing the extensive exoplanet census required by astronomers, and its ability to do extra astrophysics may be insufficient to justify its cost. After accounting for inflation, the final idea advocated by the decadal review would cost an estimated $11 billion, which is comparable to the James Webb Space Telescope. After several years of development to mature the mission idea and core technologies, work on it would begin later this decade.

The report proposed that NASA begin investigations of far-infrared and X-ray flagship missions, each with an anticipated cost of $3 billion to $5 billion, five years after the launch of the new giant space telescope. These concepts are comparable to the Lynx X-Ray Observatory and Origins Space Telescope mission studies that NASA financed to assist the decadal survey.

The decadal survey proposed that NASA pursue a series of medium-class probe missions in addition to a flagship mission program. Such projects, which may cost up to $1.5 billion apiece and launch once every ten years, would bridge the gap between NASA’s more expensive flagship missions and the smaller Explorer-class astrophysics probes launched every few years. It would be comparable to NASA’s planetary science program’s New Frontiers series of missions.

NASA studied nine options in anticipation of the interest in probe-class missions. The decadal determined that the original cost restriction of $1 billion for probe missions was excessively restrictive, with just one of the nine proposals fitting within that price range. By raising the cost ceiling to $2 billion, NASA would be unable to conduct such missions at the planned rate of once every decade.


Rocket Fuel can be produced by Natural Resources on Mars

According to recent research, future astronauts who land on Mars may be able to harness the planet’s natural resources to create rocket fuel that will let them return to Earth. Scientists published their findings in the journal Nature Communications and provided some ideas that might save billions of dollars on the trip to return our astronauts home.

As things currently stand, NASA intends to leave Mars using rocket engines powered by both methane and liquid oxygen. Because none of these occur naturally on Mars, 30 tonnes of methane and liquid oxygen would be required to carry from Earth to Mars for the return voyage. According to NASA, this stage of the procedure might cost up to $8 billion.

NASA has investigated the possibility of lowering this cost by harnessing chemical processes in the Martian atmosphere to make liquid oxygen from carbon dioxide, but methane would still be required to transfer from Earth to Mars.

Carbon dioxide, sunshine, and frozen water are all resources found on Mars that would be used in the bioproduction process. It would also entail bringing two bacteria to Mars. The first would be cyanobacteria, which would consume CO2 from the Martian atmosphere and convert it into sugars using sunlight. The sugars would be converted into a Mars-specific propellant by a modified E. coli that would be supplied from Earth. The Martian propellant, known as 2,3-butanediol, is now in existence, can be produced by E. coli, and is used to manufacture polymers for the creation of rubber on Earth.

These aforementioned experts have presented an alternate technique that would not only allow astronauts to generate methane and liquid oxygen from Martian resources but would also provide them with additional oxygen.

Instead of tonnes of methane and liquid oxygen, astronauts would travel to Mars with two bacteria. The first cyanobacteria would utilize sunlight to produce sugars via photosynthesis after being supplied with carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere and water from the Martian ice.

The second step would be for a genetically engineered E. coli bacteria to ferment those sugars into a rocket fuel known as 2,3-butanediol, which is now utilized to aid in the production of rubber on Earth. Although 2,3-butanediol is a weaker rocket fuel than methane, Mars’ gravity is just one-third that of Earth, making this solution a viable take-off alternative.

According to author Pamela Peralta-Yahya, “lift-off on Mars requires a lot less energy, which provided us the opportunity to investigate various chemicals that aren’t suited for a rocket launch on Earth. We began to think about how we could use the planet’s reduced gravity and lack of oxygen to develop solutions that would not be applicable for Earth launches.

Enzymes that could digest the cyanobacteria and liberate their sugars would also need to be delivered from Earth, and industrial separation techniques would need to be used to recover the 2,3-butanediol from the E. coli fermentation broth.

A projected rocket fuel factory on Mars would be developed, using 32% less energy than the previous method of importing methane from Earth and producing 44 tonnes of extra oxygen to support human troops. It would, however, be three times as heavy.

Further refinements, according to the researchers, might enhance microbial output to consume 59 percent less electricity and weigh 13 percent less while still producing 20 tonnes of extra oxygen.

Given the particular benefits that the biological process affords, such as surplus oxygen production for colony growth, we should begin thinking about how to design bacteria for safe usage on Mars. Peralta-Yahya said.



People with autism still face discrimination in the workplace!

In the past decade, awareness of autism and its symptoms have grown. However, many people still face discrimination in the workplace have this condition. Autism means a person experience difficulty in communicating, understanding people’s emotions and point of view, and social awkwardness. Employers legally in the U.S. can not discriminate against people with autism. 

As per this law, employers cannot refuse to hire qualified, capable job candidates because they have autism. For individuals with autism, the workplace can still be challenging to navigate. Employers need to understand how to treat employees with this condition and accommodate them along with their needs.  According to EEOC, discrimination is when people are treated differently or less favourably because they have disabilities. This can take place anywhere, including workplaces, public areas, schools.

The EEOC protects against any discrimination, including autism discrimination in the workplace. Autism is a developmental condition that affects a person’s interaction with others, behaviour, and communication. According to CDC, doctors in the U.S. diagnose around 1 in 54 children with autism. It is four times common in boys than girls. Around 31% of individuals with this condition have intellectual disabilities, approximately 46% have average or above-average intelligence. Autistic people have logical thinking and memorize and learn new information quickly.

Working with people with this condition can be both beneficial and enriching experiences for employers. But for these, employers have to address and overcome potential challenges and make the necessary changes needed for people with this condition to work comfortably.  It is a lifelong condition that affects approximately 2.21% of adults in the U.S.

People with this condition face stigma and discrimination in the workplace, as their impaired social skills affect how others view them. These people face high rates of unemployment or underemployment, which could be due to many issues. It is very challenging to find the exact data on the number of people with this condition who have faced workplace discrimination because it is often underreported. 

The effects of ASD fall into two categories: Social interaction and communication problems and behavioural problems. People have difficulty with everyday conversations and cannot share emotions. They find it challenging to respond to typical social cues. Such people have restricted or repetitive behavioural patterns. People with this condition may face discrimination in the workplace because others may find their behaviour unusual. Discrimination can lead to low self-esteem, affect the quality of life and physical health.  It can even lead to PTSD.

The Americans with Disability classifies autism as a disability and guarantees autistic people equal employment opportunities, government services, access to education, transport, and more. If a business has 15 or more employees, it cannot discriminate against autistic people. This discrimination should be avoided in every aspect of employment.

Reasonable adjustments to autistic employees should be provided at the workplace. This means that autistic employees should get proper support from their employer, and the employer should take the initiative to make environmental changes at the workplace. The other statute that prevents such discrimination is Section 503 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. This law prevents discrimination by federal contractors or subcontractors with contracts over $10,000.








This halloween SpaceX plans to launch a spooky space mission!

SpaceX is planning to initiate its spooky space station mission this week — as long as a lavatory problem gets cleared up a little bit. No, obstacles were there during a flying readiness review (FRR) for the corporation’s Crew-3 plan. It will carry four astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard a SpaceX Crew Dragon capsule. Crew-3, thus, stays on the trail to aviate ahead on Halloween dawn (Oct. 31), NASA and SpaceX declared on Monday (Oct. 25).

“We had a practical survey today,” Joel Montalbano, NASA’s ISS proposal administrator, announced during a news meeting on Monday evening after the FRR recapped. The survey reflected no alarms, Montalbano announced. However, that doesn’t tell the NASA and SpaceX companies aren’t operating on any problems. Unquestionably, they want to settle one extraordinary thing before Crew-3 can aviate — a subtle redesign of Crew Dragon’s lavatory system.

That tweak was facilitated by a problem trained on SpaceX’s Inspiration4 mission, which transmitted four particular inhabitants on a three-day excursion to route the previous month. Subsequently, that capsule, called Resilience, came back home after studies showed that a tube hooked up to the lavatory storage container had burst open during flight.

It allowed urine to not seep into the storage tanker but practically allowed it to run into the fan structure,” Bill Gerstenmaier, vice president of mold and aviation dependability at SpaceX, explained during Monday’s news meeting. However, the leakage didn’t markedly affect Inspiration4 he put in.

“We didn’t even notice it; the staff didn’t notice it until we got back” to the planet safely, Gerstenmaier let out. Yet, SpaceX agreed to alter the toilet system on the Crew-3 container, recognized as Endurance, taking off with an all-welded configuration to eradicate canal pop-offs, Gerstenmaier let out. NASA requires to provide the redesign with an ultimate thumbs-up before Crew-3 can drift, but that is predicted to occur in the coming days.

The lavatory problem could probably relate to another Crew Dragon: the capsule recognized as Endeavour, which drifted SpaceX’s Crew-2 mission and is still anchored to the ISS. Endeavor to appear back to Earth with the four Crew-2 astronauts shortly — on Nov. 4, if Crew-3 launches on time.

Astronauts on the orbiting laboratory have assessed Endeavour, watching out for indications of eroding resulting in leaked urine (or relatively, by an additive that SpaceX plops into the Crew Dragon septic structure to wipe out ammonia from urine). They haven’t discovered anything problematic, and estimations by companies here on Earth tell that all should be good for Crew-2’s retrieval, Gerstenmaier explained.

He also remarked that the leak on Crew-2 was probably considerably worse than on Inspiration4, provided that crew units utilized Endeavour’s lavatory only during its 24-hour excursion to the space station relatively than for three whole days. Crew-3 is slated to start atop a SpaceX Falcon 9 missile from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida at 2:21 a.m. EDT (0621 GMT) on Sunday. People can see the liftoff live here at courtesy of NASA or rapidly via the space agency.

The mission will carry four space flyers to the orbiting laboratory for a six-month visit, NASA astronauts Raja Chari (mission commander), Tom Marshburn, and Kayla Barron, along with the European Space Agency’s Matthias Maurer. All are spaceflight amateurs except Marshburn, who has two stays to the station under his band.


A new planet outside of Milky Way galaxy has been spotted

So far, about 5,000 exoplanets worlds circling stars other than our Sun have been discovered, but they have all been found within the Milky Way galaxy. The probable Saturn-sized planet identified by NASA’s Chandra X-Ray Telescope resides in the Messier 51 galaxy. This is 28 million light-years distant from the Milky Way.

This new finding is based on transits, which occur when a planet passes in front of a star, blocking some of the star’s light and causing a distinctive drop in brightness that can be seen by telescopes. This broad method has previously been used to discover thousands of exoplanets.

The researchers looked for dips in the brightness of X-rays emitted by an object known as an X-ray bright binary. These objects often contain a neutron star or black hole that is sucking in gas from a nearby partner star. The material in the vicinity of a neutron star or black hole gets superheated and flashes at X-ray wavelengths. Because the zone of powerful X-rays is restricted, a planet passing in front of it may block most or all of the rays, making the transit easier to detect.

This approach was utilized by the team members to discover the exoplanet candidate in a binary system known as M51-ULS-1. The approach we created and used is the only currently implementable strategy for discovering planetary systems in other galaxies.

It is a one-of-a-kind strategy for discovering planets around X-ray binaries at any distance from which we can measure a light curve. This binary has a black hole or neutron star around a companion star with a mass roughly 20 times that of the Sun. A neutron star is the collapsing core of a large star.

The passage lasted around three hours, during which time the X-ray output dropped to zero. According to the calculations, the planet would be around the size of Saturn and would orbit the neutron star which is almost twice the distance Saturn is from the Sun.

The approaches that have been so effective in discovering exoplanets in the Milky Way, according to Dr. Di Stefano, fail when seen in other galaxies. This is due, in part, to the large distances involved, which restrict the quantity of light that reaches the telescope and, in addition, to the fact that many objects are crowded into a tiny space, making it difficult to discern individual stars.

With X-rays, we may only need a few dozen sources distributed throughout the whole galaxy to resolve them. Furthermore, a subset of them is sufficiently luminous in X-rays that we can quantify their light curves. Finally, the massive X-ray emission is caused by a tiny area that can be significantly or completely blocked by a passing planet.

One difficulty is that the planet candidate’s enormous orbit implies it will not cross in front of its binary companion again for some 70 years, thereby ruling out any attempts to perform a follow-up observation shortly. Another possibility that the astronomers investigated was that the dimming was produced by a cloud of gas and dust passing in front of the X-ray source.

However, they believe this is implausible because the event’s features do not match those of a gas cloud.