Can vaccinated people cause infection to non Vaccinated people?

Most Americans are worried since the U.S. Centre for disease control and prevention decided to lift the restrictions of COVID 19.
Recently U.S. Centre for Disease Control and Prevention on May 13, announced that people who are completely vaccinated can remove their masks and can have indoor and outdoor gatherings without social distancing.

But still two-thirds of American’s are yet to be vaccinated completely. Many people who have cancer or compromised immunity are not eligible for getting the COVID shots. for children from age 12 to 15 years, the COVID shots have begun recently.

But with the restrictions being lifted, those who are not yet vaccinated are worried that they may catch COVID from those who are already vaccinated.

Luckily, the vaccine has shown way better results than expected. If we see the example of Israel, over 6.5 million people have been vaccinated as of now.

Everyone over the age of 16 was vaccinated with Pfizer–BioNTech mRNA COVID-19. And the vaccine showed to be 95% effective after complete vaccination.

With the vaccination drive, around 4.7 million people were vaccinated which eventually reduced cases by 30%.
In the same way, only 0.05% of health care workers were tested positive after complete vaccination.

When scientists make a vaccine, they specially take care of the thing known as “sterilizing immunity.” This means the vaccines can block the microorganisms even from entering the body.

So, it proves that after complete vaccination, a person can neither acquire the infection nor shed microorganisms. But yes, this is not always true. An immunized person Still catches the germ.

Scientists are still figuring out that how long does passive immunity last. They are doing further researches on neutralizing antibodies. It is believed that neutralizing antibodies not only attach to the virus but will also prevent it from causing infection.

So, CDC says that vaccines prevent the completed vaccinated persons from serious infections but the interaction of vaccinated and non vaccinated people is still a dilemma.


Future Climatic change can be predicted from past fires

A new study, recently published in the journal Science Advances reveals the smoke particles trapped in the ice.
These smoke particles tell about the fiery past that might have happened in the past in the Southern Hemisphere. This thing further puts light on the future due to climatic changes.

A student from Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) said that the idea about fire in the past atmosphere is not well characterized and hence the smoke in pre-industrial time is not revealed clearly.

He further added that these results are quite important to understand the concept of climate change from the year the 1750s till now and will also help to predict future climatic changes.

One of the biggest threats to the near future in terms of climate is the increasing global temperature and greenhouse gases.
The earlier predictions are quite difficult since understanding the warming and cooling of Earth takes lots of effort.

The greenhouse gases have the potential to capture the aerosols released by combustible materials, fire, or even from volcanoes and they further increase the temperature of the atmosphere.

The recent findings say that the levels of greenhouse gases in the pre-industrial era are well documented but the number of aerosols that were present in that era is not documented.

So, scientists wanted to create a model that could be used to estimate the number of aerosols present in the pre-industrial era in the atmosphere.

The scientists looked for the ice trapped smoke particles in Antarctica which might have come from Australia, Africa, or South America’s fire.
Smoke soot’s deposited in the ice is well preserved for the long-term data as they reveal the concentration of aerosols present in the atmosphere in a pre-industrial era.

But the results turned to be very surprising. It was assumed that the smoke would be in less concentration in the pre-industrial era but in return, the ice cores depict that history had more fire particularly in the southern hemisphere.


Nanobodies effective against COVID 19 in Hamsters

Nanotechnology has been in a leading position in terms of medicine or any other field. Constantly researches are conducted in the Nanotechnology field to discover new things that could be helpful to mankind.

Recently in research conducted at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, nanobodies were produced which proved to be effective against COVID in Hamsters.

The hamsters were made to inhale the nanobodies which proved to be successful in treating severe COVID 19 diseases in hamsters and lowered the symptoms as well.

These nanobodies are similar to that of monoclonal antibodies which initiate the immune system in humans. The nanobodies are quite smaller in size as compared to that of the monoclonal antibodies and these are cost-effective as well as easy to be produced.

This study was published in the journal of Science Advances in which the researchers explained that the rapid weight loss in hamsters due to Coronavirus infection was controlled after they were made to inhale the nanobodies.

These nanobodies were named nanobody 21 or PiN-21. The researchers further said that they not only controlled weight loss but also reduced the viral load from the nasal cavity, lungs, and throat when compared to the group administered with placebo.

An assistant professor from the Department of Cell biology of Pittsburgh University said that inhalation therapy will directly act upon the infection site like lungs and throat. These are shown to be very effective in lowering the infection directly.

He also added that this would probably prevent human-to-human transmission and can save from severe infections.

The scientists also claimed that these nanobodies do not cause any harm to vaccinated people. They work in complementary to the vaccines and will improve immunity. They also added that it did not help people who have COVID infection but can also provide immunity to some extent to those who are yet to be vaccinated.


Half of US adults are completely vaccinated!

On Tuesday, according to the data published, the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention said that half of the adults of the US are Completely vaccinated with both doses. The data is taken as the key to success in the immunization program of the country.

A senior from White house adviser Said on Tuesday that major milestones have been achieved with the help of Vaccination and immunization programs.

The vaccination rate was nearly 1 % at the start of this year i.e. in January and now the percentage has increased quite well.
The milestone nationwide has been achievable since the people came forward to take their first shot of vaccine which eventually reflected in decreasing cases of COVID 19.

Now the health Officials and state officials are asking parents about their willingness to get their children vaccinated.
The officials are asking parents to get their children vaccinated who are aging 12 and above, As earlier this month the health officials have approved the Pfizer vaccine for the age group of 12 and above.

Recently on Tuesday the modern company also said that it will seek permission from the Food and Drug administration to administrate its COVID vaccine to children aging 12 and above For emergency usage.

Recently the official from the White House encourages the efforts of government and business people who are asking to get vaccinated and in return, they are planning to provide rewards that would worth millions of dollars.

Although the vaccination drive is going quite well and people are coming forward to get vaccinated, there are still 9 states left were even the first dose Of COVID vaccine for adults are yet to be administrated.

But Vermont is the state Where almost 82% of the people are vaccinated at least with one dose of the vaccine and is leading other states in the vaccination program.

Officials also added that they will be trying their best to procure all the vaccines and get each and everyone in this country vaccinated and win over the pandemic.


Ucla studies finds Thirteen reasons why helped teens to open up!

Mental Health is one of the major issues these days teens are going through. A Netflix premiere shows released in 2017 and called Thirteen reasons why had addressed mental health issues and opened up the conversation more precisely.

A report was prepared by the Center of Scholars and Storytellers (CSS) shows of UCLA’s shows that teens have now opened up about mental health issues and are coming forward to discuss anxiety, depression, and panic attacks.

Center of Scholars and Storytellers (CSS) shows has been analyzing the effects of the series Thirteen reasons why on the mental health of teens. A small study was conducted by them in which around 157 teens were examined.

In this population of 157 teens, almost 68 teens had watched the Third season of this controversial Show and about 92% of them have surfed the internet to read about mental health issues. Here most of the teens were concerned about the topics like bullying, suicide, and mental health.

A senior author and CSS’s founder said that this show has portrayed real mental issues which encouraged the teen to talk about the mental health issues with their parents, peers, and friends.

He also added that this kind of show put a positive impact on the teens these days who would help them to overcome any mental issues that they are facing.

It was seen that during pandemic teens between the age of 11 to 17 had faced issues such as depression, anxiety, etc., and 45 % of the students who are undergoing mental health treatments are feared of the stigmas created in schools.

Not only now but ever before the pandemic, there were high suicide rates along with cases of depression and anxiety.
Hence this study eventually proved that how a TV show can also positively impact people that it made people open up and talk about their mental health issues.

Speaking about one s mental health issues is extremely important to lead a healthy life.


The food poisoning can also be a Sexually transmitted infection!

A recent study suggests that there can be many ways for food poisoning. Most common bacteria causing food poisoning are not only transmitted through food but there are many other ways as well.

It was that in Gay couple for the first, the incidence of Campylobacter passing on Sexually transmitted infection as well.

The genus of Campylobacter is generally the causative organism of food poisoning in humans. They can be quite harmful to humans. 

They are mainly found in poultry and hence one is asked to wash and cook non-veg food thoroughly. If not cleaned and cooked properly it might lead to gastroenteritis soon After consumption.

Campylobacteriosis is a disease caused by the Campylobacter organism. Even if one is cooking with proper care and purifying water still there are chances that you might experience food poisoning.

The common symptoms are stomach pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and lethargy. But these symptoms generally go away within a week or so.

The epidemiologist from the University of Oklahoma infectious disease said that mostly these organisms are spread to humans to infected poultry, milk, or uncooked meat, etc. But all these factors do not reflect everyone who had infections. 

Recently it has been identified that sexual routes are also open for these organisms to cause infections. Researchers are doing further examination on how these are transferring through sexual contacts. 

In Denmark, researchers went on to find data about this disease. They examined over 4,186 gay men. It was finally concluded that gay men had 14 % of more chances of getting this Campylobacter infection along with Salmonella. 

Researchers are not sure through what sexual route these organisms are transmitted but they suspect it to be an anal oral route.

Not only Campylobacter and Salmonella but Shigella also is proved to spread through the same route. 

Hence, it was confirmed that Campylobacter has the potential to spread through sexual routes and cause infections like food poisoning.


Facts about COVID 19 vaccination!

People are although are actively participating in vaccination drive program but still have lot’s of doubts in their mind.

Here some of these questions are being answered by the experts with full fledged explanation.

  1. I was infected with Corona virus already, should I get the vaccine even after curing from COVID 19?

Definitely one after getting infected naturally with corona virus will have antibodies against this disease. But no body is sure that how long will this immunity last. One might have got infected in the previous year and now they might be again vulnerable to disease as it is yet unclear how long this natural immunity lasts.

Hence, vaccines are extremely powerful even if one had previous exposure to the virus or not. It was also seen that people who are vaccinated after getting the infection showed better immunity than those who are vaccinated but never had this disease.

Not only this but the decreasing cases with increasing vaccination shows that vaccines are definitely helping to overcome this pandemic.

  1. If I get Johnson and Johnson’s vaccine will I get blood clots?

The side effects are definitely one should think of before getting the vaccination. But when it comes to adverse reactions, J & J’s vaccine had cause blood clots in few people but it is very rare as well. Around 20 cases of blood clots are seen after administrating 9 million doses. And mostly these blood clots were seen in women of age between 18 to 45. And symptoms are rare like headache, blurred vision, shortness of breath etc.

If still you have doubts you can consult your clinician before taking the jab.

  1. Can vaccine cause sever adverse Reactions?

Generally there are reactions one can see after getting the jab. But side effects are referred to something that might happen unexpectedly. Since after getting the jab its common to have symptoms like pain and redness in the arm, headache, vomiting, chills and fever.

But these symptoms usually subside within a day or two.

Hence, vaccines are completely safe and quite effective against this virus.



Scientists shot tardigrades to see if they survive!

The tardigrades are critters that can survive extreme conditions, but earlier studies show that they are indestructible. These are the hardest critters that can be found in the Animal kingdom.

They are microscopically visualized organisms, and these are one of the creatures that can survive any kind of worst situation. They can found in volcanoes. They can survive in a vacuum, can survive in Antarctica, and they have survived even after remaining frozen for three decades.

Although earlier studies say that they are indestructible, recent studies proved that they could also withstand up to some limited situations.
To prove their survival limits, A canister filled with tardigrades was shot with a gun at a different speed. It was seen that when shot with a gun speed of up to 900 meters per second, they were able to make it, but at any higher speed than 900 meters per second, they could not survive.

When they were shot with 2000 mph speed, they experienced 1.14 gigapascals of pressure which is equivalent to the standing of 40,000 people on one’s back.

The tardigrades have other names like Moss piglet or water bears. They can withstand temperatures up to 458 degrees Fahrenheit. They also have the potential to survive radiation since they go into hibernation and hence withstand temperature. Moreover, they can survive in the absence of Oxygen. And they remain in a state called cryptobiosis.

As they have this much survival quality, they were sent to the moon by Israeli spacecraft. The spacecraft crash-landed on the moon, but still, scientists believed that it would survive.

But scientists still had doubts over its survival, so they performed an experiment where they shot the tardigrades with high-speed guns and noted that they could not survive over 900 MPs speed. Hence, the crash landing of the spacecraft would definitely have killed them.

Since they were not able to survive the crash landing on the moon and hence it can be predicted that they can not survive the asteroid collision with other planets.


COVID and White Fungus in India!

Recently an endemic of Black fungus, also known as Mucormycosis, made India go through another worst situation and the worst second wave of COVID 19. But recently, many reports are coming up with the identification of White fungus in COVID-affected patients. Scientists are terrified since White fungus are more dangerous as compared to Black fungus or Mucormycosis.

COVID 19 and Black Fungus:

Black Fungus or Mucormycosis can cause disease by disfiguring the facial features or even can lead to death. This causes sinus and respiratory infections once inhaled.

This infection can be treated in the early stages, but it may lead to loss of vision or even may lead to death in some cases.

But patients who are struggling with COVID 19 or recovered are at higher risk of getting this infection, and it may lead them to lose their upper jaw or even be fatal. 

Patients having COVID and being treated with steroids and low immunity are vulnerable to this disease.

White Fungus and COVID 19:

Scientists are much more worried about the White fungus rather than the Black fungus since they are more deadly. Black fungus is confined to one place, but a white fungus may affect multiple parts of the body like the Kidney, Lungs, Brain, Stomach, skin, and other vital organs.

It was the scene that people infected with white fungus showed symptoms similar to that of the COVID 19 infection. But when tested for COVID 19, their results came negative.

This fungus is not spreading too quickly, and it was found in only one state of India that is Bihar.

Precautions should be taken to stay safe from White fungus Infection.

Since fungal spores can spread easily through the air and can be inhaled by the suspected person, proper precautions should be taken.

All the nonliving articles should be sanitized properly, washing hands is necessary before and after food along with self-care, and a healthy lifestyle can save from getting infected.

An intensive care should be taken for the patients of COVID 19 or who have recently recovered from it or have diabetes.


Research on Grapes Genetics revels what makes the perfect flowers!

One of the rare genetic exchanges in grapes that happened twice in the last 6 million years has led to the production of the tastiest table grapes and wines. The domestication of the grapevines started nearly 8000 years ago, and breeders are trying different genetic combinations to enhance the grapevines.

Breeders nowadays are putting efforts into producing grapevines that are better in taste along with being disease resistant. Almost breeders spend 2 to 4 years understanding the genetic makeup of the grapes and the process to get a perfect flower.

Both males and females are different for a grape plant. The males possess a stamen for the pollen but lack fruit, whereas the females have fruits and pollen, but the pollen is sterile.

Hence, they being hermaphrodite, they are used for breeding purposes as well as for research purposes. The fruits produced through these techniques are of better taste.

Recently a paper has been published with the title of “Multiple Independent Recombinations Led to Hermaphroditism in Grapevine.” This paper was written after outstanding research on grapevines done by the scientists of Cornell University and the scientists of the University of California. These scientists worked together and found the genetic markers to determine the sex of the flowers.

One of the authors said that this genetic makeup reveals a lot about the organs of the flower. He also noted that this study is significant in breeding and the genetic makeup precisely indicating the sex of the flower in a particular vine.

Generally, the wild type of grapes have different male and female flowers. Still, those grapevines cultivated these days are primarily hermaphrodite, i.e., male and female flowers are in the same plant.

Noting about the genetic makeup of male and female flowers will definitely help the breeders to breed faster with enhanced taste and keep the vines disease-free. Moreover, it will lower the cost of breeding as well.